Frisbees are designed specifically for throwing and catching.
Disc golf discs are designed for only throwing.
A disc golf disc is smaller than a frisbee. Disc golf discs are required to meet the technical standards that have been created by the Professional Disc Golf Association (PDGA). The one requirement of the PDGA is that all golf discs must be 21.2 cm long (about 8 inches).
Frisbees are much bigger, measuring around 30.48 cm long (about 12 inches)
Since golf discs are being thrown much harder and further, you’ll find the plastic to be gummier and easier to grip. Whereas Frisbees are typically made of stiffer plastic and weigh less.
A Frisbee has a tall profile and rounded outer edge. Golf discs typically have a thinner profile and a sharper outer edge to increase aerodynamics and distance.